Purpose: Adherence to immunosuppressants is the key to prevent organ rejection in organ transplant recipients. The purpose of this study was to investigate current interventions to improve adherence to immunosuppressants in liver transplant recipients. Methods: A systemic literature search was done using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and four Korean databases to identify experimental studies reported in English or Korean up to and including 2015. We identified eight intervention studies on the adherence to immunosuppressants in liver transplant recipients independently reviewed by two reviewers. The quality and risk of bias of the selected studies were assessed. Results: Education, conversion of regimen, and text messaging were identified as intervention techniques to improve adherence. We found positive results in three out of four studies implementing educational strategies, but the results were not sufficient to draw a definite conclusion. Conversion from a twice-daily tacrolimus-based regimen to a once-daily tacrolimus extended-release formula was used in three adult-only studies and its effectiveness was confirmed. One study showed that improved adherence and outcomes were effected by using text messaging with pediatric patients. Conclusion: Future research is needed to facilitate interventions to improve adherence to immunosuppressants in various ages of patients including pediatric/adolescent liver transplant recipients.
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